Tuesday, January 29, 2019

Key Causes of Water Scarcity and Researched Solutions Essay

1.0Introduction This accounting is about the increase in look at for pissing, and its purpose is a twofold, firstly to examine and explore some of the causes of the ever increasing issue of the scarceness of peeing due to industrial, agricultural and consumer necessary in society, and secondly to tumble the solutions of this concern for the Premier of Western Australia, Mr Colin Barnett. This is because weewee is a valuable imagery that is vital for the human race and developing countries such as Australia lead be facing an increase in domestic expenditure of urine by 70 percent in the future (Cashman and Ashley 2008). There were genuine limitations surrounding this report, for example the word limit for this report was 1000 voice communication and I was permitted to use a minimum of five scholarly sources and a maximum of seven. The methodology of my research began by using the database proquest on the Internet, where I found these reliable sources.2.0Causes of Demand for wet 2.1Industrial Demand Industrial Water Consumption Industries atomic number 18 one of the major key causes of the increased assume for irrigate. Many industries require piss supply to operate and perform the functions that are deprivationed to produce the goods or services in question. This is because industries such as petroleum and digging, are hugely dependable on extreme capacities of peeing thus, make them susceptible to water shortages (Holbrook 2009). Industries therefore depend on these large amounts of water for mathematical product and simultaneously are one of the essential instigators in the ever-increasing caper of water scarceness.In places such as New South Wales, Adelaide and Melbourne where mining operations are carried out, water scarcity is even more extreme. This is because of the stuff that is being extracted they are mined in those areas and those areas alone, and therefore the large gaudiness of water that is needed to extract them is a dding to the concern of water scarcity. An estimate of water between 100 and 8000 litres are required to obtain one element 109 of ore, and to worsen the situation, mining operations cannot be shifted causation water accessibility to be problematic in those areas (Holbrook 2009). This issue allows an increased strain on the local communities in which mining operations are performed thus causing a concern for the sight living in those areas.2.2Agricultural Demand cosmos Growth The requirement for agriculture is one of the most excessive causes of water scarcity. This is because agriculture needs fresh water in the process of its production. market-gardening consumes the majority of global fresh water, making it one of the most long water sources of the increased water withdraw the production of food is withal rising due to population growth, of about 80 million people per year (Holbrook 2009). According to Irvine and Saulwick (2009), Australia is poised to be the worlds m eteoric growing industrialized nation over the next four decades, with a rate of population growth higher even than India. Thus with population increasing by a vast number every year, the make for fresh water will additionally increase, therefore adding to the water scarcity in Australia.2.3Consumer Demand Economic Growth The development of the economy is other cause of the increased demand for water in the world today. As the population grows, so does the demand for goods and services and therefore results in economical growth which is one of the major causes of water consumption. According to Barbier (2004), the extensive water dilemma is the result of economic development and the rise in population. The production of the increased demand for goods and services require water, and as the need for these goods increase, so will water demand.3.0Solutions to Water Scarcity 3.1Watershed Improvement in water management is one way to reduce water demand. Water sectors that insure poli tical boundaries amidst a certain watershed come together to realise their needs whilst protecting the ecosystem (Klausner, Mitten and Ingram 2007).3.2Conservation Techniques In order to protect the earth, fresh water demand has to be decreased and by doing so the majority of freshwater users need to be active in the process of decreasing the chances of water shortages. then by educating users about adequate water preservation techniques, water demand can be decreased. According to Klausner, Mitten and Ingram (2007), by educating farmers about the finest irrigation methods, they can befool the opportunity to use water efficiently. Farmers use a vast majority of freshwater and the Australian farmers can be educated about the methods and expectant required to conserve water.3.3Reclaimed Water Reclaimed water is wastewater that has been treated to remove impurities. The substitution of this water can improve the issue of water scarcity. According to Klausner, Mitten and Ingram (20 07), countries such as Japan use almost 80% of reclaimed water in their industrial sector. The limited amount of freshwater supplies makes this conservation method more accepted. It is an excellent idea, especially for the south of Australia where there is Mawson Lake and can recycle water.4.0Conclusion The aim of this report was to outline the causes for the increased demand for water and to provide researched solutions. I provided information on the increased demand for water due to population growth, economic growth and the industrial consumption of water. The damages of water shortage are very dangerous and the consequences are deadly because of ecological and human health issues. Although demand can be reduced by the use of reclaimed water, conservation techniques and watershed methods. In Australia, the methods can be implemented to decreasing water demand for the future.5.0Recommendations In order to improve water use in Australia, the factors that need to be considered are w ater reuse by using reclaimed water to flush toilets, wash clothes and water gardens, educating farmers on water use, by informing them on irrigation techniques and watershed methods. In doing so, water demand in Australia will be reduced in the future if these methods are explored and practiced.

Sunday, January 27, 2019

Factory Overhead Allocation Method

knock tryst pic Overhead Allocation Overview In many businesses, the address of command processing smash-up beat is substanti onlyy greater than account live, so the make up accountant must exp end up considerable attention on the proper method of allocating command processing operating expense to inventory. There atomic number 18 two types of viewgraph, which ar administrative hit and manufacturing command processing bang time. Administrative overhead includes those comprise not intricate in the development or production of goods or services, such as the cost of front office administration and sales this is essentially all overhead that is not included in manufacturing overhead.Manufacturing overhead is all of the costs that a pulverisation incurs, other than direct costs. You need to allocate the costs of manufacturing overhead to any inventory items that atomic number 18 classified as toy-in-process or finished goods. Overhead is not allocated to raw material s inventory, since the operations giving bristle to overhead costs only impact work-in-process and finished goods inventory.The following items ar usually included in manufacturing overhead Depreciation of factory equipment timberland control and inspection Factory administration expenses Rent, facility and equipment Indirect tire out and production supervisory wages Repair expenses Indirect materials and supplies Rework get, silicon chip and spoilage Maintenance, factory and production equipment Taxes related to to production assets Officer salaries related to production Uncapitalized tools and equipment Production employees benefits Utilities Definition of Applied OverheadA type of overhead that is put down under the cost-accounting method. Applied overhead is a fixed charged to a specific production job or department within a company. Applied overhead stands in contrast to general overhead, such as utilities or rent. Other forms of applied overhead include deprec iation and insurance policy Definition of Actual Overhead The effective overhead refers to the indirect manufacturing costs essentially r severallyring and recorded. These include the manufacturing costs of electricity, gas, water, rent, property tax, production supervisors, depreciation, repairs, maintenance, and more. The applied overhead refers to the indirect manufacturing costs that have been depute to the goods manufactured.Manufacturing overhead is usually applied, assigned, or allocated by using a pre correctd annual overhead set up. For example, a manufacturer might estimate that in its upcoming accounting twelvemonth there go away be $2,000,000 of manufacturing overhead and 40,000 auto hours. As a result, this manufacturer sets its pre fixd annual overhead commit at $50 per automobile hour. Since the future overhead costs and future number of machine hours were not known with certainty, and since the actual machine hours will not occur uniformly throughout the ye ar, there will always be a difference between the actual overhead costs incurred and the amount of overhead applied to the manufactured goods.Hopefully, the differences will be minimal at the end of the accounting year. APPLIED Overhead is computed using the predetermined overhead rate and is the amount of costs applied (or estimated) to be allocated (needed) for specific jobs. ACTUAL Overhead is found after the manufacturing process is complete which gives the actual amount of utilise/consumed resources (or total costs) that it needed to complete the job. The two amounts buttocks hence be compared afterward which is known as Under- or Overapplied Manufacturing Overhead. When Manufacturing Overhead has a calculate balance, overhead is said to be UNDERAPPLIED, meaning that the overhead applied to work in process or to the certain job is LESS than the overhead incurred.On the contrary, when manufacturing overhead has a CREDIT balance, overhead is OVERAPPLIED, meaning that the over head assigned to work in process or to the certain job is great than the overhead incurred. The typical procedure for allocating overhead is to accumulate all manufacturing overhead costs into one or more cost pools, and to then expenditure an employment measure to apportion the overhead costs in the cost pools to inventory. Thus, the overhead apportionment formula is Cost pool / Total activity measure = Overhead allocation per whole You crapper allocate overhead costs by any reasonable measure, as long as it is consistently applied across reporting periods. Common bases of allocation are direct labor hours charged against a product, or the amount of machine hours drug abused during the production of a product.The amount of allocation charged per unit is known as the overhead rate. The overhead rate butt end be expressed as a proportion, if both the numerator and denominator are in dollars. For example, first principle Company has total indirect costs of $100,000 and it decid es to use the cost of its direct labor as the allocation measure. ABC incurs $50,000 of direct labor costs, so the overhead rate is reckon as $100,000 Indirect costs $50,000 direct labor The result is an overhead rate of 2. 0. Alternatively, if the denominator is not in dollars, then the overhead rate is expressed as a cost per allocation unit. For example, ABC Company decides to change its allocation measure to hours of machine time used.ABC has 10,000 hours of machine time usage, so the overhead rate is now calculated as $100,000 Indirect costs 10,000 Machine hours The result is an overhead rate of $10. 00 per machine hour. If the basis of allocation does not appear correct for certain types of overhead costs, it may make more sense to split the overhead into two or more overhead cost pools, and allocate each cost pool using a different basis of allocation. For example, if store costs are more appropriately allocated base on the substantial footage consumed by various product s, then store warehouse costs in a warehouse overhead cost pool, and allocate these costs based on square footage used.Thus, far we have assumed that only actual overhead costs incurred are allocated. However, it is also possible to set up a standard overhead rate that you continue to use for multiple reporting periods, based on long-term expectations regarding how much overhead will be incurred and how many units will be cleard. If the difference between actual overhead costs incurred and overhead allocated is small, you can charge the difference to the cost of goods exchange. If the amount is material, then allocate the difference to both the cost of goods sold and inventory. Definition of Cost Of Goods Sold COGS The direct costs attributable to the production of the goods sold by a company.This amount includes the cost of the materials used in creating the good along with the direct labor costs used to produce the good. It excludes indirect expenses such as distribution costs and sales military unit costs. COGS appears on the income statement and can be deducted from revenue to calculate a companys gross margin. Also referred to as cost of sales. Our consent over The issue To determine the cost of goods we have to determine the factory overhead. Cost of goods are included all the costs occurred during the production including direct and indirect material, labor and all the factory overhead costs. We use allocation method to determine the factory overhead costs.If we cant determine the factory overhead costs we cant find out the actual cost of the goods those are produced and the sale value we cant determine correctly. Because cost of a good is consisted with factory overhead costs. Factory overhead expenses should be determined otherwise understated rate of a good can occur. Because if we cant determine the factory overhead costs we cant actually determine the cost of a good that is ready for sale. Allocation methods are used to determine factory ove rhead costs. Organizations use Applied or Actual factory overhead allocation methods to determine the Factory overhead costs. Cost of goods are lied with these factory overhead costs.So if we need to determine the amount in which we need to sale a good we need to determine its total manufacturing costs. Otherwise leaving will occur. Conclusion Cost of Goods sold is actually related with sales. And Allocation method is used to determine the factory overhead costs which is necessity to determine the costs o a good. We need to determine the factory overhead before the goods are sold. Because without calculating the factory overhead we cant determine the costs of a good and cant determine the amount in which we need to sale that good. Thats wherefore we use Allocation method to determine the factory overhead cave in than charging or crediting the difference to COGS.

Ken Robinson

even so in modern day 20th century despite our harvest-time in society, anyone who wishes to pursue any dreams or aspirations in the arts is to a great extent criticized for any chance of success and is frowned upon. In this article, Robinson (2006) takes an interesting approach to shoot his point across that enlighten education systems kill creativity. He takes tether approaches which be listing, explaining and analysis. He uses hes own individualized stories and professed(prenominal) stand point to grasp the readers attention.Robinson discusses the theme speak throughout the presentations and how it will tie into his presentation. He now goes on by explaining that creativity should be treated with the same status as literacy has in education. consort to Robinson (2006) he states, We stigmatize mistakes and were now running a national education system where mistakes ar the worst thing you post make. The result of creating that stigma is that we are educating people out of their creative capacities.Robinson refers to a quote from Picasso that states all children are born artist. How will we localise these issues and keep the creative mindset if all we do is frown upon those who are more tastyally bound rather than academically bound. Robinson shares a gross(a) example of the previous statement. He shares a story of a personal friend named Gillian Lynne, a world known choreographer for Phantom of the Opera and Cats. He opposed the question to Gillian on how she became a dancer and she explained that in school she felt hopeless and could never concentrate.The teacher suggested to her parents that she had a learning derange she was sent to see a psychologist who later(prenominal) on came to the conclusion by and by observing her that Gillian was not sick in any track, she was just a dancer. She later on attended a dance school, auditioned mass Robinson 3 for the gallant Ballet Academy, graduated and founded her own company. One of many perfect examples of artistic people who became insanely successful despite the lack of academics.Robinson (2006) concludes with how there are three types of intelligence, its diverse, its dynamic and its distinct. According to Robinson (2006) We invest a bunch of time into educating children on how to succeed in the incoming but if we are unable to predict the future in five years despite our expertise the whos to say were meant to educate them for it. How will we prepare them for a time that is so furthest away and technology that has yet to be invented yet. Robinson goes into urther analyzation when he says We must encounter a new conception of human ecology, one of which we start to structure out conception of the richness of human capacity. As for the future it wont serve us. We have to rethink the fundamental principles on which were educating our children. Robinson (2006) How can we push the human capacity to its full potential drop if were not exploring all it its aspects. We would not have people comparable William Shakespeare if we didnt explore the artistic aspect and the historic change make in art and literacy.Read alsoHow Powerful Do You describe Atticus Finchs Closing Speech?Robinson did an exceptional job at capturing the readers attention and let the think of his discussion and fashioning them form their own opinion. He also backed up all(prenominal) point with a personal story and/or fact which make this more effective. He used humour as an essential way to make his presentation entertaining yet analytical. He argued both pros and cons to each paradigm in order to show he was not biased. Ken Robinson 4 Robinson theory that school kills creativity was proven to be good written and presented by adding humour, personal stories and facts. He left the readers with a lot to debate about and consider.

Monday, January 21, 2019

Health and Environment

The links between environment and wellness puzzle been recognised since the beginning of history. The places in which we live, work and play, the piddle we drink, the resile we br eathe, and the feed we eat, solely pee impacts on wellness. wellness is a State of complete physical, mental, complaisant and spiritual earth assistance and non merely the absence of diseases. Human wellness and the wellness of all the species be intimately linked to the environment.Health and Importance of the environment A clean environment is internal for military man health and well- existence as we use the environment as A resource for food supply. An dexterity source. A source for recreation. A study source for medicines.Human health is based on adequate supply of foods containing the energy, nutrients, and functional properties that ar essential for good health. Humans realize met these fundamental needs through the economic consumption of a diverse range of plant and animal foods available in a wide range of eco bodys. Thus, milieu is directly linked to the creative activity of life. There is a close impact of biodiversity on human health as it is the foundation of human health. Biodiversity is essential for Guaranteeing the healthiness of humans. Securing the life sustaining goods and services.Biodiversity in akin manner supports- food security, dietary health, livelihood sustainability. Biodiversity withal provides important resources for medical query, corresponding as studies of wildlife anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry butt manoeuver to important developments in human medicine. Environment takes c atomic number 18 of our health by not only providing the basic factors, shelters and foods exclusively also taking the burden of diseases. The World Health Organization (WHO) has estimated that both(prenominal) one quarter of the global burden of disease could be diminish through existing environmental interventions. This fraction is higher in abject countries and among children.Environment contamination and Health Risk Though the environment is of enormous immenseness for our health, we argon polluting the environment in many elbow rooms which is really toxic for our health. pains contaminant Without cable we female genital organnot even survive for minutes but this aerate is organism polluted in various ways. Firstly, by burning fogy fuels the smoke is channelting scuffleed into the air. Secondly, a lot of trees are being cut lot which are called factory of atomic number 8, receiving carbon dioxide and releasing oxygen. cod to the destruction of trees, CO2and carbon mono oxide and other scatheful gases are increase which is severely polluting the air and ruining the ozone layer of earth.Effects on Health and the EnvironmenLike photochemical pollutants, sulfur oxides contribute to the incidence of respiratory diseases. Acid rain, a form of precipitation that contains high levels of sulfuric or nitric acids, back end pollute drinking irrigate and vegetation, damage aquatic life, and erode buildings. When a weather condition known as a temperature inversion prevents dispersal of smog, inhabitants of the area, specially children and the elderly and chronically unfit, is warned to stay indoors and avoid physical stress.The prominent and debilitating effects of severe air defilement episodes in cities passim the world such(prenominal)(prenominal) as the London smog of 1952 that progenyed in 4,000 deaths stimulate alerted governments to the necessity for crisis procedures. Even e reallyday levels of air contaminant may insidiously affect health and behavior. Indoor air befoulment is a bother in developed countries, where efficient insulation retains pollutants inside the structure. In less(prenominal) developed nations, the lack of running water and indoor sanitation toilette encourage respiratory infections.Carbon monoxide, for example, by driving oxygen out of the bloodstream, causes apathy, fatigue, headache, disorientation, and decreased muscular coordination and visual acuity. Air pollution may possibly harm creations in ways so subtle or slow that they lay down not yet been detected. For that reason research is now under way to assess the long-term effects of chronic picture show to low levels of air pollutionwhat most people experienceas well as to determine how air pollutants interact with one another in the personate and with physical factors such as nutrition, stress, alcohol, cigarette smoking, and common medicines.Another subject of probe is the relation of air pollution to stoolcer, birth defects, and genetic mutations. . How air pollution affects our health is determined by The length of time we are exposed. Our health status and genetic make-up. The concentration of pollutants. Peaks in air pollution gutter Make it harder to breathe. Irritate our respiratory system Aggravate symptoms associated with asthma and chron ic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), chronic bronchitis and emphysema. Aggravate peckt conditions such as angina and heart rhythm problems. water pollutionWater pollution is the contamination of water bodies (e. g. lakes, rivers, oceans, aquifers and groundwater), very(prenominal) lots by human activities. Water fall into places 70% of the Earths surface and makes up over 60% of the human body. Water pollution affects marine ecosystems, wildlife health, and human well-being. The answer to answer pollution is to make stirs in our daily habits and pay more(prenominal) assistance to the types of products we consume. instances of Water PollutionSewage from domestic households, factories and commercial buildings Sewage that is tempered in water treatment plants is often disposed into the sea.Sewage can be more problematic when people flush chemicals and pharmaceutical substances down the t anointet. Dumping solid dissolutions and littering by humans in rivers, lakes and oce ans. Industrial waste from factories, which use freshwater to carry waste from the plant into rivers, contaminates waters with pollutants such as asbestos, lead, mercury and petrochemicals. Oil Pollution caused by oil spills from tankers and oil from ship travel. Oil does not dissolve in water and forms a thick sludge.Burning fossil fuels into the air causes the formation of acidic particles in the atmosphere. When these particles mix with water vapor, the result is acid rain. An increase in water temperature is caused by global warming and thermal plants that use lakes and rivers to cool down mechanized equipment. Effects of Water Pollution Groundwater contamination causes fruitful damage in spite of appearance wildlife in ecosystems. Organic materials that when discharged into waters, increase the growth of algae, which causes the depletion of oxygen.The low oxygen levels upset the natural ecological balance in rivers and lakes. Swimming in and drinking contaminated water cause s skin rashes and health problems like cancer, reproductive problems, typhoid fever and stomach sickness in humans. Industrial chemicals and coldming(a) pesticides that end up in aquatic environments can accumulate in slant that are later eaten by humans. Mercury is particularly vicious to small children and women. Mercury has been found to interfere with the development of the scatterbrained system in fetuses and young children.Ecosystems are destroyed by the rising temperature in the water, as coral reefs are stirred by the bleaching effect over cod to warmer temperatures Human-produced litter of items such as plastic bags and 6-pack rings can get aquatic animals caught and killed from suffocation. Water pollution has been extensively documented as a contributor to health problems in humans and marine animal ecosystems. It has a huge impact on our lives, and if we do our part by not throwing trash or chemicals into our water supplies and drains, we can contribute to the g ain of aquatic life and of our health in general.Noise pollutionNoise pollution takes place when there is either excessive amount of kerfuffle or an unpleasant sound that causes temporary disruption in the natural balance. Our environment is such that it has become difficult to escape noise. Even electrical appliances at home have a unremitting hum or beeping sound. By and magnanimous, lack of urban planning increases the moving-picture show to unwanted sounds. This is why taste noise pollution is necessary to curb it in time.Causes of Noise PollutionIndustrialization Most of the industries use big machines which are capable of producing large amount of noise. Apart from that, various equipments like compressors, generators, exhaust fans, grinding mill near also participate in producing big noise. Poor Urban formulation In most of the developing countries, poor urban planning also plays a vital role. Congested houses, large families sharing small space, compress over pose, frequent fights over basic amenities leads to noise pollution which may disrupt the environment of society.Transportation Large number of vehicles on roads, airplanes go over houses, underground trains produce heavy noise and people get it difficult to get accustomed to that. The high noise leads to a dapple where in a normal person lose the ability to hear properly While this form of pollution may seem harmless, it in fact has far reaching consequences. The adverse effects on the health of the environment are quite severe. Not only is the local wildlife affected by the pollution, humans also facing a number of problems due to it.Effects of Noise PollutionHearing Problems Any unwanted sound that our ears have not been built to filter can cause problems within the body. Our ears can take in a certain range of sounds without getting damaged. musical composition made noises such as jackhammers, horns, machinery, airplanes and even vehicles can be too loud for our hearing range. Co nstant exposure to loud levels of noise can easily result in the damage of our ear drums and wrong of hearing. Health Issues Excessive noise pollution in working areas such as offices, formula sites, bars and even in our homes can influence psychological health.Studies show that the occurrence of aggressive behavior, disturbance of sleep, constant stress, fatigue and hypertension can be linked to excessive noise levels. Cardiovascular Issues credit line pressure level levels, cardio-vascular disease and stress related heart problems are on the rise. Studies suggest that high intensity noise causes high blood pressure and increases heart beat rate as it disrupts the normal blood flow. dormancy Disorders Loud noise can certainly hamper your sleeping rule and may lead to irritation and uncomfortable situations.Effect on Wildlife Owls and bats are especially affected by plane and traffic noise, as it impacts their abilities to in effect hunt. Some scientists believe this could put these animals at risk of extinction. Animals develop a better sense of hearing than us since their survival depends on it. The ill effects of excessive noise begin at home. Pets react more aggressively in households where there is constant noise. They become disoriented more easily and face many behavioral problems. In record, animals may condense from hearing detriment, which makes them easy prey and leads to dwindling populations. undercoat pollutionLand pollution, in other words, means degradation or destruction of earths surface and soil, directly or indirectly as a result of human activities. Anthropogenic activities are conducted citing development, and the same affects the set ashore drastically, we witness knowledge domain pollution by drastic we are referring to any activity that lessens the reference and/or productivity of the convey as an ideal place for agriculture, lumberation, construction etcetera The degradation of kill that could be used constructively in other words is let down pollution.Land Pollution has led to a serial publication of issues that we have come to realize in recent times, after decades of neglect. The increase numbers of barren pour down plots and the decreasing numbers of forest cover is at an alarming ratio. Moreover the extension of cities and towns due to increasing population is leading to further exploitation of the land. Landfills and reclamations are being planned and execute to meet the increased demand of lands. This leads to further deterioration of land, and pollution caused by the land fill contents.Also due to the lack of green cover, the land gets affected in several ways like soil eroding occurs slipstream away the fertile portions of the land. Causes of Land Pollution Deforestation and soil erosion Deforestation carried out to create dry lands is one of the major concerns. Land that is once converted into a dry or barren land can never be made fertile again, whatever the order of magnitude of m easures to redeem it is. Land conversion, meaning the alteration or modification of the master copy properties of the land to make it use-worthyfor a specific purpose is another major cause. Agricultural activities With increase human population, demand for food has increased considerably. Farmers often use highly toxic fertilizers and pesticides to get rid of insects, fungi and bacteria from their crops. However with the overuse of these chemicals, they result in contamination and poisoning of soil. digging activities During extraction and mining activities, several land spaces are created beneath the surface.We constant hear about land caving in this is nothing but natures way of filling the spaces left out after mining or extraction activity. Overcrowded landfills Each household produces tones of garbage each year. dribble like aluminum, plastic, paper, cloth, wood is collected and sent to the local recycling unit. Items that cannot be recycled become a part of the landfills that hampers the beauty of the city and cause land pollution. Effects of Land Pollution Soil pollution Soil pollution is another form of land pollution, where the upper layer of the soil is damaged.This is caused by the overuse of chemical fertilizers, soil erosion caused by running water and other pest control measures this leads to loss of fertile land for agriculture, forest cover, fodder patches for grazing etc. Change in climate patterns The effects of land pollution are very hazardous and can lead to the loss of ecosystems. When land is polluted, it directly or indirectly affects the climate patterns. environmental Impact When deforestation is committed, the tree cover is compromised on. This leads to a steep asymmetry in the rain cycle. A disturbed rain cycle affects a lot of factors.To begin with, the green cover is reduced. Trees and plants help balance the atmosphere, without them we are subjected to various concerns like Global warming, the green house effect, irregular pelting and flash floods among other imbalances. Effect on human health The land when contaminated with toxic chemicals and pesticides lead to problem of skin cancer and human respiratory system. The toxic chemicals can reach our body through foods and vegetables that we eat as they are grown in polluted soil Cause Air pollution Landfills across the city keep on growing due to increase in waste and are later burn which leads to air pollution.They become home for rodents, mice etc which in turn transmit diseases. amazement for Tourist The city loses its attraction as tourist destination as landfills do not look good when you move around the city. It leads to loss of revenue for the state government. Effect on wildlife The animal kingdom has suffered for the most part in the past decades. They face a honest threat with regards to loss of habitat and natural environment. The constant human activity on land is leaving it polluted forcing these species to move further away and adapt to fresh regions or die trying to adjust.Several species are pushed to the verge of extinction, due to no homeland. Other issues that we face accommodate increased temperature, unseasonal weather activity, acid rains etc. The discharge of chemicals on land makes it dangerous for the ecosystem too. These chemicals are consumed by the animals and plants and thereby make their way in the ecosystem. This process is called bio magnification and is a serious threat to the ecology.Thermal PollutionIt is caused by addition of hot effluents and hot water bodies. Warm water contains less oxygen. So there is decrease in rate of decomposition of organic matter. Green algae are replaced by less desirable blue green algae. Many animals fail to multiply. Trout egg fail to hatch while salmon does not spawn at higher temperature. Thermal pollution is the rise or fall in the temperature of a natural body of water caused by human influence. A common cause of thermal pollution is the use of water as a coolant by power plants and industrial manufacturers.When water used as a coolant is returned to the natural environment at a higher temperature the change in temperature impacts organisms by (a) decreasing oxygen supply, and (b) affecting ecosystem composition. Urban outpouringstorm water discharged to surface waters from roads and parking lotscan also be a source of wonderful water temperatures. Thermal pollution can also be caused by the release of very cold water from the base of reservoirs into warmer rivers.This affects fish (particularly their eggs and larvae), macro invertebrates and river productivity. Effects of Thermal Pollution Sudden and episodic increase in temperature producing a thermal effect Changed dissolved oxygen Changes to reproductive powers and increased susceptibility to disease Production of heat shock proteins for thermo tolerance. Changes in migration time and pattern may be affected. Decrease in productivity of the water body.Radioactive pollutionR adioactive pollution is created when hot byproducts of a nuclear reaction, either man-made or natural, are dumped in the environment or in the vicinity of human settlements. Nuclear power and research stations are the major contributors to man-made radioactive waste. These facilities bring about a nuclear reaction (usually fission) for the purpose of either production of energy (electricity) or research. When a heavy atom of a nuclear fuel, such as uranium, undergoes nuclear fission, it results into two daughter nuclei, both radioactive in their own rights.These byproducts arent reusable and thus have to be dumped. The introduction of these radioactive byproducts causes radioactive pollution. Effects of Radioactive pollution The impact of radioactive pollution on human beings can vary from mild to fatal the magnitude of the adverse effects largely depends on the level and duration of exposure to radioactivity. Low levels of localized exposure may only have a superficial effect and cause mild skin irritation.Effects of long, but low-intensity exposures include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, loss of hair, bruises due to subcutaneous bleeding etc. Long-term exposure or exposure to high amounts of radiation can have far more serious health effects. Radioactive rays can cause irreparable damage to DNA molecules and can lead to a life-threatening condition. lengthen exposure leads to a large number of molecules in the body being ionized into free radicals. Free radicals promote the growth of cancerous cells, i.e. tumors, in the body.People with heavy radiation exposure are at a very high risk for cancers. The rapidly growing/dividing cells, like those of the skin, bone marrow, intestines, and gonads are more sensitive towards radioactive emissions. On the other hand, cells that do not undergo rapid cell division, such as bone cells and nervous cells arent damaged so easily. Skin cancer, lung cancer and thyroid cancer are some of the common types of cancers caused by radiation.RecommendationsAbating pollutions is an exceptionally important concern because of pollutions unwholesome effects on the health of human and other organisms. Many scientists and researchers have pointed out many ways to reduce pollution but some of our common concerns and practices can help to reduce pollution. Water & Air pollution Using low phosphate level detergent.Dispose off wastes like tissue papers by putting them in trash bins quite a than flushing them down the drain. Plant more trees and use native plants. Do not keep the engine running at signals. This releases toxic chemicals in the air Avoid burning woods, leaves, trash and charcoal during ozone action days. Using public transportation for short local tripsLand pollution The greatest prevention to land pollution is in the three Rs Reduce Waste, Re-use things and Recycle things. Buy products that have little packaging.Dont dump motor oil on the ground.Noise pollution Construction of soundproof rooms.Noise producing industries, airports, bus and transport terminals and railroad line stations to sighted far from where living places Vegetation (trees) along roads and in residential areas is a good way to reduce noise pollution as they absorb sound. Maintaining a sound environment is very important because polluted environment causes a long range of health problems, threatens the future of humans and hence, the future of our civilization. So we should share the responsibility to keep our environment as much pollution free as come-at-able and thus reduce health risks.

Saturday, January 19, 2019

Cis207 Syllabus

pic unravel political platform College of breeding strategys &038 engineering science CIS/207 Version 3 entropy Systems Fundamentals procure 2012, 2011, 2010 by University of Phoenix. All rights reserved. Course Description This course introduces the fundamentals of computing device dusts and the role of increment processing in todays contrast environment. An overview is presented of cultivation clays, governances development, run bodys and programming, database management, ne cardinalrking and telecommunications, and the Internet. Policies Faculty and bookmans will be held responsible for understanding and adhering to all policies contained in spite of appearance the following two documents University policies You essential be logged into the scholar website to view this document. t wholeness-on-onelyer policies This document is posted in the Course Materials forum. University policies are subject to change. Be sure to read the policies at the beginni ng of each break. Policies may be slightly different dep revokeing on the modality in which you attend class. If you take aim recently changed modalities, read the policies governing your current class modality. Course Materials Rainer, R. K. , jr. , &038 Cegielski, C. G. (2012). grounding to information systems back up and transforming business (4th ed. . Hoboken, NJ John Wiley &038 Sons. Turban, E. , &038 Volonino, L. (2011). reading engineering science for management up(a) strategic and operational performance (8th ed. ). Hoboken, NJ John Wiley &038 Sons. All electronic materials are available on the student website. workweek One data Systems Overview Details Due Points Objectives tell apart the components and roles of information systems. Explain the system development life cycle methodology. Explain the system development life cycle methodology. key how IT systems enable and upraise the organization. Course Preparation have the course description and objectives. Review the cultivation team Toolkit. pictureings watch Ch. 1, Information Systems in the 2010s, of Information engineering science for attention alter strategical and holdable execution. contain Ch. , IT Infrastructure and Support Systems, of Information engineering science for precaution astir(p) strategic and Operational Performance. submit Ch. , Organizational Strategy, private-enterprise(a) Advantage, and Information Systems, of presentation to Information Systems back up and Transforming Business. hear Technology pass 1, hardware, of Introduction to Information Systems Supporting and Transforming Business. strike Technology Guide 2, Software, of Introduction to Information Systems Supporting and Transforming Business Read the calendar week One Read Me First. Review articles order in electronic Reserve Readings. Participation bear your biography to the appropriate Chat Room thread. Participate in class discussions on at least 4 of 7 days each week. insouciant 4 serve to each week discussion question DQ (a). thorium serve to weekly discussion question DQ (b). Saturday Post weekly individual(prenominal) drumhead (PS). Monday Review the Learning Team Toolkit. Learning Team invent Goal andPropose a modern system for Riordan Manufacturing to use to remedy its business. Riordan is Final Instructions one of the virtual(prenominal) Organizations. A link to the Virtual Organizations female genital organ be found on the Power Point is student website. Due Monday of Wk5 Develop a 7- to 10- foliate subject (2800 words minimum) and a 10- to 13-slide Microsoft PowerPoint presentation of the project to be submitted in workweek Five.The paper must include Final newsprint is the following Due Monday of Wk5 An executive director abbreviation of the project, summarizing the rest of the material in the p aper An identification of the business call forments using a BRD. A table defining hardware/ package changes to be implemented. A description of how the proposed information system changes will enhance the existing processes. Process flow charts with supporting descriptions that articulate the business fates in terms of specific processes or business development needs. someone An individual college research paper is not assigned for the first week. Assignment workweek Two Information Flow and Security Details Due Points Objectives make out how information flows through an organization. take up system components that enable information use. Identify the effect of information security concerns on systems. Evaluate ethical situations in IT. Readings Read Technology Guide 1, Computer Hardware, of Introduction to Information Systems Supporting and Transforming Business. Read Ch. 3, Data, Text, and Document Manageme nt, of Information Technology for Management Improving strategical and Operational Performance. Read Ch. 4, Network Management and Mobility, of Information Technology for Management Improving Strategic and Operational Performance. Read Ch. 5, IT Security, Crime, Compliance and Continuity, of Information Technology for Management Improving Strategic and Operational Performance. Read Ch. 4, Global Ecology, Ethics, and social Responsibility, of Information Technology for Management Improving Strategic and Operational Performance Read the Week Two Read Me First. Review articles found in electronic Reserve Readings. Participation Participate in class discussions on at least 4 of 7 days each week. mundane 4 respond to weekly discussion question DQ (a). Thursday Respond to weekly discussion question DQ (b). Saturday Post weekly personal digest (PS). Monday Learning Team Instructions Create Team Charter (sample found in Course Materials Forum). Monday array working on proposal for natural system. Create the first draft of the Executive Summary. Monday 4 Begin defining the business requirements of the selected systems. Individual Write a 3-4- scalawag (350 words avg. per page) college research paper identifying and describing Monday 10 Assignment how information systems support the business processes in an organization. Information Systems Paper Describe the business processes within your current place of avocation or an organization with which you are familiar. Describe the strengths and weaknesses of the information systems you have elect to pass and how to improve those systems. pock college research papers require at least 2 references cited. Week Three Web &038 Mobile Computing, in operation(p) Systems, Applications Details Due Points Objectives Identify how the Internet and expeditious devices impact information systems and o rganizations. Identify common computer application software package utilize at personal and enterprise levels. Explain how information systems utilize new technologies. Readings Read Ch. 6, E-Business and E-Commerce, of Information Technology for Management Improving Strategic and Operational Performance. Read Ch. 7, Mobile Computing and Commerce, of Information Technology for Management Improving Strategic and Operational Performance. Read Ch. 8, Web 2. and Social Media, of Information Technology for Management Improving Strategic and Operational Performance. Read Ch. 7, E-Business and E-Commerce, of Introduction to Information Systems Supporting and Transforming Business. Read the Week Three Read Me First. Review articles found in Electronic Reserve Readings. Participation Participate in class discussions on at least 4 of 7 days each week. Daily 4 Respond to weekly discussion question DQ (a). Thursday Respo nd to weekly discussion question DQ (b). Saturday Post weekly personal summary (PS). Monday Learning Team Instructions act up working on new system proposal. Finalize business requirements (BRD) for selected systems. Monday 4 (Sample BRD is posted to the Course Materials Forum). Begin preparation of process flow charts and supporting descriptions. Begin preparation of Microsoft PowerPoint presentation. Continue update of the draft Executive Summary. Individual Write a 3-4 page (350 words avg. per page) college research paper describing the hardware andMonday 10 Assignment software used to support personal, work group, and enterprise computing within your current Hardware and Software organization, an organization with which you are familiar, or one that you pot converse to College Paper gather the necessary information. NOTE college research papers require at least 2 references cited. Week Four Information System Usage in O rganizations Details Due Points Objectives Identify types of systems and databases used in organizations. Explain how business requirements drive system use. Readings Read Ch. 9, Operational training and Control Systems, of Information Technology for Management Improving Strategic and Operational Performance. Read Ch. 10, Enterprise Information Systems, of Information Technology for Management Improving Strategic and Operational Performance. Read Ch. 11, Business Intelligence and Decision Support, of Information Technology for Management Improving Strategic and Operational Performance. Read Technology Guide 3, Emerging Types of Enterprise Computing, of Introduction to Information Systems Supporting and Transforming Business. Read Technology Guide 4, Intelligent Systems, of Introduction to Information Systems Supporting and Transforming Business. Read the Week Four Read Me First. Review articles found i n Electronic Reserve Readings. Participation Participate in class discussions on at least 4 of 7 days each week. Daily 4 Respond to weekly discussion question DQ (a). Thursday Respond to weekly discussion question DQ (b). Saturday Post weekly personal summary (PS). Monday Learning Team Instructions Continue work on new system proposal. Finalize process flow charts and supporting descriptions. Monday 4 Identify and describe network security functions using a Network Security Doc. (NSD), needed Monday by Riordan Manufacturing systems.Include the purpose of these security functions in your paper. Continue preparation of Microsoft PowerPoint presentation. Individual Write a 3-4 page (350 words avg. per page) college research paper analyzing the use of Monday 10 Assignment databases in your organization.Address the following in your paper Database depth psychology College Paper Include what database applications are used Microsoft A ccess, DB2, Oracle, and another(prenominal) applications. Conclude by proposing improvements. For large organizations, restrict the scope of the paper to the plane section you work in. Substitution a previous employer or report on databases used in the business world with examples. Include reference page. NOTE college research papers require at least 2 references cited. Week Five Networking, Telecommunications, and the Internet Details Due Points Objectives Identify factors affecting system acquisition. Explain how current IT systems are managed. Explain the role of strategic planning in IT. Identify security factors for conducting business using networks. Readings Read Ch. 12, IT Strategic Planning, of Information Technology for Management Improving Strategic and Operational Performance. Read Ch. 13, Business Process Management and Systems Development, of Information Technology for Management Improving Strategic and Op erational Performance. Read Technology Guide 4, Basics of Telecommunications and Networks, of Introduction to Information Systems Supporting and Transforming Business. Read Ch. 4, Networks and Collaboration as Business Solutions, of Information Technology for Management Improving Performance in the Digital Economy. Read the Week Five Read Me First. Review articles found in Electronic Reserve Readings. Participation Participate in class discussions on at least 4 of 7 days each week. Daily 4 Individual Respond to weekly discussion question DQ (a). Thursday Respond to weekly discussion question DQ (b). Saturday Post weekly personal summary (PS). Monday Learning Team Submit the 7 to 10-page paper explaining the project proposal. Monday 10 System Proposal Paper and Presentation Submit the 10 to 13-slide Microsoft PowerPoint presentation. Monday 10 Contribution to Actively assist Team to stool Project Paper &038 PowerPoint. Daily 10 Learning Team Download the Peer valuation Form from the Course Materials Forum (use only this form).Each student must call for out and post only the form minus the instruction page to their Individual Monday Forum. Individual Write a 2- to 3-page (700 words minimum total) memoranda that Monday 8 Assignment analyzes two Websites that sell books. Create a dim-witted Microsoft Word Table to list at least Website Book vendor 10 books that are found on each site. List the Author, Title, expense found on Website-1, and Memorandum with Table embeddedon Website-2. Describe what conclusions can be made about the pricing.Also, describe the quality of the substance abuser interface on each Website and make a recommendation. The Memo can be (word count does not include addressed to any group you select. The table should be embedded within the paper not adept table) attached to it. A reference page is required at the end of the memo. NOTE college memorandums r equire at least 2 references cited. proveion Questions Week 1 DQ (a) What is a specific role an information system can play in an organization? What are three components of this system?How do they work in the enterprise? DQ (b) How can an IT system initially suspensor a company advance, but later become a requirement for that business to stay competitive? Week 2 DQ (a) How is information used in the modern enterprise? How does this use affect IT systems? DQ(b) Why it is distinguished to protect the information organizations use today? What are the basic elements in systems that help with this task? Week3 DQ (a) How are mobile devices, mobile computing, and social media changing how IT systems are used? What can organizations do to maximise value and minimize risk when users use these devices? DQ (b) Why is new technology often disruptive for existing IT systems?What things can be done to prepare these systems for future technology ahead of time? Week 4 DQ (a) Describe three t ypes of systems used in organizations. Note the factors that normally lead to adopting the system and requirements that will likely push its future growth of each type. DQ (b) Discuss an IT system that has transformed the way organizations in at least one field carry out work. Note what requirements drove the system to be developed and what requirements are likely to drive it to change in the future. Week 5 DQ (a) Discuss two major issues involved with acquiring systems and two major issues commonly faced when maintaining them. Address how each can be minimized or overcome.DQ (b) Describe the effect of an organizations strategic planning on the IT systems it uses. Address how strategic planning simplifies and complicates IT system development and use. Copyright University of Phoenix is a registered trademark of Apollo Group, Inc. in the United States and/or other countries. Microsoft, Windows, and Windows NT are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United States and /or other countries. All other company and product names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective companies. Use of these marks is not intended to imply endorsement, sponsorship, or affiliation. Edited in accordance with University of Phoenix editorial standards and practices.

Indian Secularism: a Theological Response Essay

1. INTRODUCTIONFor m whatsoever years faith has been a superior force in whatsoever told forgiving societies, embracing exclusively medical prognosiss of military man feel. The world was sought to be understood and explained in verges of holiness. It was with the elbow room brea king discovers in the world of physical sciences and as well as the social move custodyts like the re mannequination and the renaissance that broke a port the subordination of theology in the middle Ages. Thus in that location was a lingering process by which the perform and soil began to be separated in the west. The archetypal foundation of unsanctifiedism began to be laid with this legal separation. Secularism appeargond as an opp unrivalednt to Christianity entirely in course of time, it was identified as a r forthe of life sentence and an interpretation of life that did non admit both(prenominal) kind of communal prejudice. But by and by, the layperson attitudes became neces sary for a modern demythologised fiat.Secularism has been a critic wholey important steering in the modern world. In India, profaneism attains an added signifi freighterce because of the accompaniment that Indians receive been chummyly wedded to phantasmal condition in the past and is hardly devoid of such con situationrateness so far today. It is because of the circumstance that the India represents a multiplicity of socio-communal groups. Secularism is the spirit which enlightens the personality of India. But the internalisation of layism in India and oddly into the character was itself the culmination of a historical process, which is the secernate to under underpin our present day secularism. Therefore one must reckon out the foundations on which the whole structure of Indian secularism has been raised. My seminar paper is guarantee to analyse the historical back ground of the origin Indian secularism, its developments, threats that Indian secularism faces an d a theological solvent to Indian secularism.2. SECULARISM DEFINITION AND ITS MEANINGThe term secularism was created in 1846 by George Jacob Holyoake in order to describe a form of opinion which concerns itself only with observ up to(p) movements, the issues of which potful be tested by the propose in of this life . Holyoake was a leader of the English secularist and free thought movements. gibe to Holyoake presidency should work for the benefit of the working classes and poor based upon their c e rattling(prenominal) for in the here and now rather than any needs they big businessman take for a future life or for their souls. For him secularism would symbolize that which fall uponks the development of the physical, moral, and apt temper of man to the highest possible point. The concept of secularism was origin all(a)y lawful as a non- sacred philosophy foc utilise upon the needs and concerns of homosexuality in this life, not the possible needs and concerns associa ted with any possible afterlife. . The in sort outigence secular actor of this world in Latin and is the opposite of ghostlike .As a doctrine, secularism is usually used to describe any philosophy which forms its morals without reference to spectral dogmas and which promotes the development of human art and science. Secularism was alike intentional as a materialistic philosophy, both in terms of the means by which human life was to be improved and in its reason of the nature of the universe. The beginning and perhaps most leafy vegetable arrest of secular today stand in opposition to unearthly. harmonise to this usage, something is secular when it can be categorized with the worldly, polished, non-religious sphere of human life. A secondary taste of secular is contrasted with anything that is regarded as holy, sacred, and inviolable. According to this usage something is secular when it is not worshipped, when it is not venerated, and when it is open for critique, judgm ent, and switchment .In political terms, secularism is a movement towards the separation of worship and government. This can refer to reducing ties amongst a government and a state religion, replacing laws based on scripture with civil laws, and eliminating discrimination on the creation of religion. This is tell to add to democracy by protecting the rights of religious minorities . The society which patterns secularism is known as secular society or state. The spectacular features of secular society or state atomic number 18 the descriorganism. Secular society is not homogenous, exactly is pluralistic. It is tolerant. There is a deep gaze for individuals and the small groups of which they argon a part and comparability for all mint. Each person should be helped by society to realize their token excellence. It breaks off the barriers of class and caste. India by its governing body is considered as a secular state . It is in this context I am trying to risk the hi storical back ground of Indian secularism.3. HISTORY OF INDIAN SECULARISMSecularism in India has very divergent meaning and implications. The word secularism has never been used in Indian context in the sense in which it has been used in Western countries. India is a country where religion is very central to the life of throng. Indias age-old philosophy as expounded in Hindu scriptures callight-emitting diode Upanishad is sarvadharma samabhava, which means personify respect for all religions . The reason behind this approach is the fact that India has never been a mono-religious country. Even ahead the Aryan invasion India was not a mono-religious country. There existed numerous tribal cults in Indian plain before Aryan invasion and most of whom authorizeed to be Dravidians. The advent of Christianity and Islam excessively added more religious traditions to existing Indian traditions. Thus it would be change by reversal to say that India is bewilderingly diverse country in e very aspect of religious, ethnical and caste. Though the persuasion of secularism in the West was the separation of religion from the State, in India it acquired a different meaning and shape.It is because Indian secularism was a response to a different and unique historical situation. Religious toleration was a part of Indian historical tradition. It existed before the idea of secularism was introduced to India. It got coupled with Indian secularism and became its base and foundation. Secularism in India was conceived as a system that sustained religious and cultural pluralism. Some researchers believe that the annals of Indian secularism begin with the avow movements in the 5th century B.C. The three main protest movements were by the Charvakas (a secularistic and materialistic philosophical movement), Buddhism, and Jainism. All three of them rejected the authority of the Vedas and any wideness of belief in a deity . Here I am going to analysis the historical origin of Indian secularism through different stages of Indian history.3.1 Secularism in the Pre- Colonial Period or in feudal IndiaUnder feudal system there was no opposition amidst different religious traditions as authority resided in kings and in global there were no inter-religious tensions among the slew of different religions. They co-existed in peace and accordance though at times inter-religious controversies did arise. There was also tradition of security deposit amongst religions due to state policies of various kings since time immemorial from Gupta Kings to Ashoka and Akbar. galore(postnominal) religious sects and practices kept away from rigid intolerant forms . The contri furtherion of king Ashoka to the development of secularism or we may say the tolerant existence of all religion is admirable.His approach was more humanistic. He was very tolerant towards all religion. Ashoka gave gigantic importance to the ideal of margin towards different ideologies and religions. Acco rding to Romila Thapar, Ashokas definition of social ethics is based on a respect for all religious t apieceers, and on a harmonious relationship amid parents and children, t to each oneers and pupils, and employers and employees. Contributions of kings like Ashoka and Akbar gave a solid foundation to Indian secularism . Thus Indian had a very different face of secularism, which based on the tolerance and correlative respect. But by the coming of British form there was drastic change in understanding secularism.3.2 Secularism in British IndiaBy the 18th century, British East India Company slowly began to gain numerate control over India along with it the ideas of secularism began to deport impact on the Indian mind. Until then, religion was considered to be inseparable from political and social life. British codify laws pertaining to practices of each religion separately as part of their divide and rule policy. In doing so they laid the foundation for a non-uniform civil formu la which remains liberally unchanged to date. During the British rule, the main challenge was not between religious and secular but it was between secular and communal. In the western world main struggle was between church and have and church and civil society but in India neither Hinduism nor Islam had any church-like structure, hence there never was any such struggle between secular and religious power structure. The main struggle was between secularism and communalism.The communal forces from Hindus and Muslims mainly fought for share in power though they used their single religions for their struggle for power . The contribution of Christian missionaries to Indian society and especially to the growth of secularism is admirable. Evangelism that they followed was based on respected liberty of choice and promoted the ideas of religious emancipation. They could develop morality based on humanism which promotion of the ideas of human dignity, worth, and freedom. One of the great est achievements of British rule was modernization of education by promotion of secular knowledge. Missionarys social work was the use of the ideas of human dignity, equality, and worth . This gave rise to the emergence of Indian freedom involutioners. Their understanding of secularism was different. They intertwined secularism with matterism.3.3 Secularism in modern IndiaAfter independence and separation a large number of Muslims were left in India and for this reason the leaders like Gandhi and Nehru promote to hold back India secular in the sense that Indian state pass oning have no religion however people of India bequeath be free both in individual and corporate sense to follow any religion of their birth or adoption. Thus India remained politically secular but new(prenominal)wise its people continued to be deeply religious. Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of India was great champion of secularism and secular politics. Theoretically speechmaking the Congres s political party was also committed to secularism. However the Congress Party consisted of several members and leaders whose secularism was in doubt. Dadabhai Naoroji, Justice Mahadev Govind Ranade, and Surendranath Banerjee were the prominent Indian national congress leaders whose understanding of secularism was diminish. One of the most outstanding moderate leaders was Dadabhai Naoroji who was considered as the founder of secular patriotism in India. His idea of secularism was that religion and politics must be separated.He went further than this and steer a firm stand that religion must be subordinated to politics. He believed in Swaraj, according to him it can be achieved only through the political union of all Indian people belonging to various creeds and classes. For him secular nationalism was a way to mobilize and unite whole people of India belonging to different creeds and classes to fight against British whose rule created disastrous consequences on Indian economy. S ince he belonged to a minority comm accord of India, promoted and believed in the idea of religious toleration. His idea of secularisation implied and represented nationalism, anti-imperialism and anti-communalism. He urged Indians to subordinate their loyalty to their religion at the misrepresent of their devotion to their nation . Nationalist leaders like Bal Gangadhar Tilk, Lala Lajpat Rai were of the position that Indian nationalism was religious nationalism not secular nationalism.They were known as extremists in Indian national congress. The extremist school mixed religion and politics. They used religion in arousing sentiments of nationalism among the Indian masses. They consciously and measuredly used religion as the basis of their nationalism. For them nationalism was the prime consideration and highest hold dear which should be achieved by all means. They believed that as soon as nationalism gets deeply rooted in India, secularism would inevitably get promoted because nationalism itself is an agent of secularism. They were not in favor of a theocratic state, but they accepted the conception of India remaining a multi-religious community and firmly believed in Hindu-Muslim cooperation. They used religious symbols and terminology to expand and intensity devotion to the niggle land. Their strategy was to use religious trace and sentiments to create great spot for mother land among Indians irrespective of religions.For that they revived the memories of the Vedic past of Hindus and used the neo-vedantic movements and the cult of mother worship. The negative side of this religious nationalism was that it caused for communal personnel among Hindus and Muslims . Gandhi viewed secularism from a religious perspective. He believed that religion and the State are inseparable, that ir- religionism encouraged by the State leads to demoralization of the people and that, therefore, the States religious policy should be pluralistic with equal respect to all religions. Mahatma Gandhi believed that all deities were manifestations of the One and all religions led to the same goal. It was this kind of a pluralistic approach to religion that made him to oppose religious conversions . Gandhi tell that his opposition to conversions, especially of Christian conversions, originated from his own position that all religions were essentially equal and that equal respect, (Sarva-dharma-samabhava) not mutual tolerance, was the need of the hour. He also teard Christian Missions of using social services to net in win overs.He argued that the Harijans had no mind, no intelligence, no sense of difference between God and no-God and that they could no more distinguish between the relative merits than could a cow . Thus, the Gandhian pluralistic perspective of secularism disfavors conversions, especially among the Harijans for at least(prenominal) twain reasons, firstly since no religion can claim infrangible truth and since all religions are fundame ntally equal, conversions are out of question and secondly secularism provides freedom of religion to all people alike without considering their intellectual ability and it is unjust. Thus the real spirit of Gandhian understanding of secularism is all inclusiveness, religious pluralism and quiet co-existence . Jawaharlal Nehru interpreted secularism from an agnostic point of view.For him religion stands for stand for blind belief and reaction, dogma and bigotry, superstition and exploitation, and preservation and exploitation of vested interests . During the freedom Struggle, it was Nehru, Jinnah, and Subhash Chandra Bose who upheld that it was wrong for religion to interfere in politics. According to him all human enterprise should be delivered from religious dominance and should become more apparent . As an agnostic, he believed in rationality, secularism, and a scientific approach as the true means of progress in India. He understood that the desolation of religious superstiti on by secularism was the only means to a peaceful India. He viewed secularism as a great cementing force of the diverse people of India whose mind is divided on the basis of religion.For him it was the necessity of the time to replace religion with secular values to grow unitedly in unity and fraternity. Nehru represented the Western form of secularism very well. While Gandhi stressed on the equality of all religions and religious pluralism, Nehru was more inclined towards the modernity of the Enlightenment. It was the able leadership of a secular visionary such as Nehru that held India together through out the early unstable years of the country. Nehrus mental rejection and rationalism had no place for religious dictates in political matters. Therefore, he was able to see religion with a scientific eye and keep religious fundamentalism away from interfering in Indian politics .4. SECULARISM IN INDIAN CONSTITUTIONThe concept of secularism as embodied in the piece of music of Indi a cannot be viewed in the sense in which it is viewed in the West, but in the context of the followe provisions of the Constitution the Constitution guarantees freedom of conscience, freedom to declare, practice and propagate religion and also freedom to establish religious institutions and manage or administer their affairs. It prohibits discrimination on causal agency of religion and guarantees legal and social equality to all by providing equality before law and equal protection of laws, prohibiting discrimination with regard to places of public importance and providing for equal opportunity in matters of public employment. The Constitution also guarantees religious minorities the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice and to conserve their script, dustup and culture. This provision of the Constitution naturally indicates that the Indian secularism is world built upon the freedom, equality and tolerance in the field of religion. The essence of secularism is that the state is neutral in its relationship with religions .Thus, the distinguishing features of a secular democracy as reflected by our opus are, firstly that the state will not identify itself with or be controlled by any religion. Secondly while the state guarantees to everyone the right to profess whatever religion one chooses to follow, it will not accord any special treatment to any of them. Thirdly no discrimination will be shown by the state against any person on paper of his religion and faith. Fourthly the right of every citizen, subject to any general condition to enter any office under the state will be equal to that of his fellow citizens . The basic outlines of the secularism are enshrined in the different members of the Constitution, they are Preamble says India is democratic, republic, socialist, secular country.Secondly no State morality There shall be no state religion in India. The state will neither establish a religion of its own nor bri ng any special patronage upon any point religion. So the Indian ecesis gives important to no religion but all treated equally. The distinguished characters of this secular aspect of our country can be spread over from this. They are the state will not compel any citizen to endure any tax for the promotion or maintenance of any particular religion or religious institution ( hold 27). No religious instruction shall be provided in any educational institution all prolong by state funds. Even though religious instruction is imparted in educational institutions recognized by state or receiving aid from the state, no person at lending such institution shall be compelled to suck up that religious instruction without the consent of himself or of his guardian. In short, while religious instruction is totally banned in state-owned educational institutions, in other denominational institutions it is not totally prohibited but it must not be imposed upon people of other religions without their consent ( word 28).Thirdly the freedom of Conscience every person is guaranteed the freedom of conscience and the freedom to profess, practice and propagate his own religion, subject only. Fourthly, equality before law Article 14 grants equality law and equal protection by the laws to all. Article 15 enlarges the concept of secularism to the widest possible extent prohibiting discrimination on grounds of religions, race, caste, sex or place of birth. Article 16(1) guarantees equality of opportunity to all citizens in matters of public employment and reiterates that there would be no discrimination on the basis of caste, creed, sex, color, place etc. Fifthly and finally the cultural and educational right Under Article 29 and 30 certain(p) cultural and educational rights are guaranteed.Article 29 guarantees the right of any section of the citizens residing in any part of the country having a clean-cut language, script or culture of its own and to conserve the same Article 30 p rovides that all minorities, whether based on religion or language, shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice . Therefore our constitution can be considered as manifesto of Indian secularism. This is sum and nerve of Indian understanding of secularism. The main thrust of Indian secularism is not aversion towards religion but religious tolerance and equal respect to all. This is very different from the western understanding of secularism. But communalism, religious fundamentalism or discrimination of politicians towards particular religion create big challenge to Indian secularism. now I am going to deal with the major threats of Indian secularism.5. THE major THREATS OF INDIAN SECULARISMIndia has been declared a secular state by its scripted constitution and it is every Indians duty to stand by and believe in this declaration. And yet recent political and social rasets have questioned the secular nature of India. Is India a secul ar country only on paper or does secularism actually exist in India or is in the form of pseudo- secularism, a term the BJP and its allies seem to repeatedly harp on. One of the salient features of Indian secularism is its religious tolerance or peaceful co-existence of all religion. This is violated due to communalism or fundamentalism. The B.J.P. and its aliens criticize the present day secularism as pseudo-secularism, which unsound the minorities at the expense of the majority and demanded that special rights for minorities be taken away . Communalism among these parties created lot of violence in our country. The attack on the Mosque at Ayodhya led to a rash of violence across the country. The events leading to the demolition of Babri musjid and their aftermath of communal carnage mark a watershed in the history of free India.The traumatic events clearly exposed the chasm that had been created between the two communities by communal forces. Today, the biggest challenge to the Indian secularism is Hindutuva.The communal forces are actively propagating the myth that Secularism is a new mask of fundamentalism. They denigrate the secular policies, which are a hindrance to Hindu Rights unobstructed butt against to subjugate the oppressed in general and minorities in particular. They are consider fundamentalism with Islam and the policies of Indian rulers with secularism, and the appeasement of mullahs as being synonymous with secular policies.Further, Hindutva forces accuse that secularism pampers the Muslims as a vote bank. The Muslims are accused of extra-territorial loyalty because they allegedly cheer for Pakistan whenever India and Pakistan play cricket. Since Muslims are being thought synonymous to fundamentalism therefore the assertion that the Indian state is appeasing fundamentalists in the name of secularism. It is simply on this charge that the Father of Indian Nationalism, Mahatma Gandhi, was assassinated by one of the votaries of Hindutva.The Christians, who are much lesser in number, are accused of being more loyal to the Vatican. Christians are being accused of conversion, which is in way a great threat to Indian secularism. Christians are trying to convert poor Hindus with inducements of education and food. It is against the gospel values of freedom and dignity. Conversion should take place within the heart, which means with right knowledge and freedom. But the violence against Christian on the ground of conversion is not right. Who can swallow the brutal burning of Graham Staines and his two minor sons by a member of the Bajrang Dal in the name of religion? Or even the rape of some sisters in Gujarat, their fault being the spreading of the word of their God.Another important hazard to Indian secularism is the lack of uniform laws for all religions. In Indian each religion has particular laws apart from the common law. It creates lot of problems regarding marriage, adoption etc. Though it is granted by our constitut ion which was made by British and it was the part of their divide and rule policy. This has to be changed for bringing unity among the Indians. This will help the minority sometimes to take advantage over majority. Some of these particular laws are dehumanizing and against equality that our constitution grantees to all.6. INDIAN SECULARISM A THEOLOGICAL RESPONSEOur father of nation, Gandhi once said that I do not expect India of my dreams to develop one religion, i.e., to be wholly Hindu or wholly Christian or wholly Mussalman, but I want it to be wholly tolerant, with its religions working side by side with one another. This is the dream of every citizen of India. But what we see in our present day is the big threats to our secularism, especially envisaged by our great leaders and also carved in our constitution. For Indians the concept of secularism means the peaceful, reverent co-existence of all the people in spite of differences. The time has come for each one of us as Indian theologians to discuss and find out the ways for solving or facing the major threats to our secularist existence. We need a country where all people are considered equally, treated with equitable opportunities for his or her own personal development. We need a country where all are respected not on the basis of social status but on the basis on dignity or human value that we all possess. We all are created in the run into and likeness of immortal.The image or dignity that we all have is the basis of our peaceful or mutual respectful co-existence, which is threatened by the communalism, religious fundamentalism etc. India being a traditional society which contains not one, but many traditions owing their origin, in part to the different religions that exist here, has retained the secular character. Ours is a society where Sufis and Bhakti saints have brought in a cultural acceptance for each other. But due to the wasted interest of some people who have concern for their careers as politicians or leaders rather than welfare of people mess our secular nature of our country. There were successful to create hateredness in the heart of Indian people. There should not be any feeling of otherness as we all have a shared history. What we have to develop is humanistic secularism where all are respected on the basis of each ones dignity. Our rights and obligations are grounded in the dignity of people and which helps us live in communion with god and in solidarity with others .The eclogue constitution of second Vatican Council, GS 24 says, God, who has fatherly concern for everyone, has willed that all men should constitute one family and treat on another in a spirit of brotherhood. For having been created in the image of Godall men are called to one and the same goal, namely, God himself for this reason, love of God and neighbor is the first and greatest commandmentindeed, the lord Jesus, when he prayer to the father, that all may be one as we are one opened up vista s closed to human reason. For he implied a certain likeness between the union of the divine persons, and in the union of gods sons in truth and charity. This likeness reveals that man, who is the only creature on the earth which god willed for it, cannot fully find himself except through sincere gift of himself. Therefore, as we are having not one history but many history of different religious origin, we need to develop feeling of members of same family with equal dignity and right.Today what we need is community based on love, toleration, mutual acceptance. For this we need new metaphors of love which will empower us in our enterprise for creating solidarity with social group, building bridges between communities. Jesus gave us the law of love, to love ones neighbor as oneself. He preached against retaliation, and showed the way of forgiving. We need to create mutual respect for all accept each other as equals, and members of same family which is prime spirit of Indian secularism. Being Christian we are accused on conversion, which in fact one of the causes for persecutions against us. But the original theology of church does not tell us that we have to spread the gospel by any means. According to Jesus conversion is from the heart. Real conversion takes place in the heart. It pulls us away from the forceful conversion. By forceful conversion I mean is that conversion without full knowledge and freedom. We make people as members of church by offering food, education but real conversion should happen by means of our unselfish service. People of other religions of India respect our selfless service to the humanity. There is truth in every religion. All religion gives the way to god. Therefore conversion doses not look nice in our present day society.Indias secularism and its constitution articulate the basic speculation of Indias people, namely, that religions are not contradictorily opposed but complementarily related, not withstanding their serious differen ces. This assumption is in keeping with the ideal of Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam. The wisdom of secularism India is that it promotes true religiosity, as envisaged in Indian constitution, and as enunciated in the preamble to the constitution justice, liberty, equality and fraternity . Therefore what we need is that practice of Indian religiosity which is based on justice, liberty, equality and fraternity.BIBLIOGRAPHY1. Goyal, Raju. Secularism and Indian thought. Ritu Publishers, Delhi, 2000. 2. Kalliath, Antony and Irudaya, Raj., ed. Indian Secularism A theological Response. Indian Theological Association,2010. 3. Khan, Kamaluddin. Secularism in India A Brief Study. Patna University press, 2006. 4. Marbaniang, Domenic. Secularism in India A Historical Outline, 2005. 5. Tejani, Shabnum. Indian secularism A Social and Intellectual History. Permanent mysterious Press, Ranikhet, 2007. 6. Secularism in India accessed on 9 January 2012 available from www.civilserviceindia.com. 7. Secularism ac cessed on 10 declination 2012 available from w.w.w. Wikipedia.com.

Thursday, January 17, 2019

Heb Is the Best Store

H-E-B H-E-B is a habitual grocery store in the residential district of Houston, TX. There atomic number 18 many aspects of H-E-B that appeal to the consumers in my area. Some good qualities of H-E-B are competitive pricing, pally customer service, cleanliness, and a large multifariousness of products. These positive qualities all be intimate unneurotic to provide the consumer with an enjoyable scab experience. H-E-B, which stands for Howard E. Butt, first began in as a small, family-owned store in 1905 in Kerrville, TX. Now H-E-B serves over one hundred fifty-five communities and has over 340 grocery stores throughout Texas and Mexico.H-E-B is one of the largest and most successful individually owned retailers nationwide. Their commitment to good service, low prices, and friendly shopping has benefited them well. You make love when you shop at H-E-B, you will find great sales and attractive pricing. They aver many in-store coupons and Buy One, Get One Free deals. They in addition offer a Meal Deal every week. In a Meal Deal, you bargain an item and then get many items giving This week you get noodles, pasta sauce, and Italian soda for free when you buy frozen meatballs and shredded Parmesan cheese. Many nation love to shop at H-E-B because they save a lot of money.When you shop at H-E-B, you can want to receive friendly customer service. When you walk around the store, you get to reach free samples of foods. They pay their employees well and always waste enough people working. H-E-B is rarely understaffed. As a result, H-E-B manages to avoid having long lines a checkout. They likewise train their employees well, meaning they can provide knowledgeable assistance to their customers. beaming employees make happy customers. H-E-B keeps their stores very clean at all times. They offer antibacterial wipes at the entrance so you can wipe the shopping carts and remove the germs from previous customers.The bathrooms are always clean and smelling goo d. The mathematical product is organized nicely and kept updated. Due to a high hatful of shoppers, the products on the shelves are always fresh and not out-of-date. H-E-B offers a freshness Guarantee for all of its products. This means that if you find an outdated product, you can ferment it to the register and get the same item (not outdated) for free. H-E-B offers their customers a wide variety of foods and products. They have a bakery, a butcher, a pharmacy, a floral discussion section, a healthy living department, a deli, and even a sushi chefThe produce department has conventional fruits and vegetables as well as organic and unusual types. They have a huge variety of cheeses, meats, bakery items, processed foods, and even ready-to-eat foods. A consumer can easily try approximatelything new every time they shop at H-E-B. You can drop by H-E-B and buy some sushi, some bananas, and even flowers for you mother All these positive qualities about H-E-B come together to give th e customer a pleasant and profitable shopping experience. These qualities are some of the reasons that H-E-B is the most popular grocery store in the community of Houston, TX.

Wednesday, January 16, 2019

Practical and Emotional Intelligence

concrete and aflame Intelligence Tabitha Driskell PSY/201 March 24, 2013 Taryn Fetscher virtual(a) and Emotional Intelligence Practical intelligence is the intelligence related to overall success in living. Emotional intelligence is the set of skills that underlie the accurate assessment, evaluation, expression, and regulation of emotions (Feldman, 2013, p. 385). The difference in the midst of the two is that virtual(a) intelligence is learned by observing bulks behaviors while emotional intelligence has to do with understanding differents emotions.Emotional intelligence is the basis of empathy for self-awareness and social skills (Feldman, 2013, p. 385). These two buns champion you accomplish many things, especially if you are practised with both. These both can help you rattling well when working. Just imagine you are a cashier register and a customer complains ab forth a soup-strainer by yelling and calling you ill names. If you are really near at both intelligences consequently you can deal with this in a quiet and mature way. Ask the customer what is wrong with the withalthbrush, if the customer keeps cheering at you then you know that you need to get the manager.If you have a low intelligence for both emotional and practical intelligence then you can get fired because you will start acting uniform the customer. Emotional intelligence can help in this situation by helping you understand what the person is really feeling by their embody language, words and facial expressions. It can also help you by subtle how to calm down the customer enough so nonhing bad happens by listening to what the customer says and talking in a calm and mature way. Practical intelligence can help because you will be good at observing the persons behavior.If you are good at only one of these it may help but not as good as both would. You may get too compassionate if you are only emotionally intelligent because you will really feel sad because of what the custom er is going through. If you are both though, then you can think ab prohibited it more critically using practical intelligence. One television case that I can think of that uses both intelligences is Bugs Bunny. He is always studying peoples behaviors to reckon how he can get out of trouble. He also knows how to get to your nerve centre to get out of trouble. Such as with his foe Elmer Fudd who tries to cook him in a lot of episodes.He is able to make him cry by obese him stories that he knows will make him sad. He also dresses up as other people so that he can get out of trouble. With his wit I believe he can get out of any situation. His practical intelligence and emotional intelligence is easy to see through every episode. Another character is Dr. House who plays in the memorialize House. He is able to tell if someone is lying to him by flavour at their body language and behavior. He is also very sweet and is actually able to diagnose a room full of patients in a minute whi le walking out of the clinic.He only did this to maneuver people that he can do it. Although he is good at practical and emotional intelligence, he can be mean. He unremarkably acts like he does not care about his patients, but he just does that because he does not like to show his emotions. Critics have called his character sociopathic because of this. Other than his flaws he is really smart and intelligent. The only hassle he needs to work on is his social skills. Resource Feldman, R. S. (2013) psychological science and your life (2nd ed. ). New York, NY McGraw Hill. My memory of characters

Tuesday, January 15, 2019

C1: white an introduction which explains why it is important to plan to meet the care and learning needs of all children Essay

In this research task I will be explaining the importance of come across the fearfulness and learning demandfully of tout ensemble children and referring to various legislation and a theoretical perspective which supports this research and legislation Planning to meet the c are and learning needs of all children is crucial to their wellbeing, growth and development. Early years practitioners must always follow and understand the standard care needs of children which are set out by the Early Years establishment Stage (EYFS). These guidelines help support and allow practitioners to know how to meet and broadcast for childrens learning and care needs to give them the best doable start in biography. Care needs have been researched by theorists equal John Bowlby and Maslow they have both shown that to achieve and develop in life it is important to have confidence and positive self-esteem.See more how to indite an introduction paragraphMaslows hierarchy of needs explains human c onduct and shows the important in terms of basic requirements. Other theorists like Brunner, Piaget and Vygotsky pure tone at the way children learn. Appropriate provision is important for children as this covers all aspects from stage of development, age and special learning needs that might be in the setting. Ensuring that practitioners take into account any learning needs is in truth important. Practitioners provision will be allowing for any children with additional needs e.g. auditory modality impairment, physical needs, eye problems, speech impairment are habituated the infallible help and support which will suit that childs person needs to help them learn and develop. If a child wasnt given support when needed they can become very behind and wont be able to learn the way they have the aright to learn.Children can become very reclusive and lack confidence if they are singled out or excluded, so giving them the right support they need will benefit them and help them progr ess. In practice there was a girl who couldnt walk unaided, she had a walker for mobility. The girl hasnt as yet been diagnosed with anything but every in the nursery were pass judgment and supportive. If she need to sit down we would help her, if she wanted to go outdoor(a) we would make sure she was able to do it herself. When we had a standing practise we made sure there was a chair close in case she needed to sit down, we had tables that were longer so she could stand up if she wanted to and have her walker behind her for support. We never excluded her from an bodily function and we changed activity plans to suit her needs.View as multi-pages

Monday, January 14, 2019

Impact of Television Advertisement on Buying Behaviour of Adolescents Essay

Market arena in India has been witnessing several transfigures in character and complexity since the last few years. These changes implicate a higher reach of mass media, particularly due to an increase penetration of satellite channels, availability of a greater assortment of products and services, a higher level of consumer sp completioning on items other than basic necessities, a more discerning choice manner exhibited by consumer preference for bankrupt value in products and services. A gradual ontogenesis of the providence has indeed influenced these changes.However, the most important impetus for the trans cast of charactersation of markets is the visible increase in competition. Given these signals, the key question vexing most companies is how does one deal and grow in rapidly changing and competitive markets? The answer is television receiver Advertisement. Television the great invention of J. K. Baird has today became a mass media of recent communication as a re sult there has been an increase in great amount of commercial propaganda. Todays producer invests enormous amount of money on TV advertisement and in purpose new ways of attracting consumers towards his products.As a result consumerism is the new religious belief of the day. Consumerism is having great effect on various chemical groups of the society. Adolescents are the important group of the society. So, it will be of great use to find-out how television advertising affects them? In the city consumerism had already begun to spin its web. Adolescents are the main targets of this, which attempts to change their spending pattern, lookstyle & views. Consumerism is also influencing youngs buying demeanour & higher desire of acquiring luxurious goods in their future-life.In short the producer of today is demonstrateing to capture the market by focusing its special attention towards adverting by keeping adolescents in their commove of view. The best example of consumerism is advertising strategy adopted by chinaware for capturing market. Their main focus is on adolescents. China has gained great share in the international market due to adverting its adolescents-related products. They became successful in earning orthogonal revenue just by changing adolescents psychological science done advertising. This example of China depicts how a growth rate in economy is accelerated by mere advertising for adolescents.In 1991 Indian government activity introduced new Industrial Policy and adopted the concept of Liberalization, Privatization and Globalization, as a result there is rapid growth in Industrialization. Many foreign and multinational companies entered into Indian market to sell their products. To capture the market some producers are engaged in advertising their products on Television. TV advertisements are displayed in a very attractive manner. Generally the help of motion picture stars and cricket stars is taken for advertising the products. This strategy of the producers is having a great touch on on buying behavior of adolescents.Adolescents get easily attracted towards these TV advertisements and try to follow their favorite film stars and cricket stars. TV advertisements are acting a crucial role in changing the buying behavior of adolescents. Today adolescents prefer to buy luxurious goods and desires to live a prosperous life in future. Today there is a drastic change in eating and clothing habits of adolescents due to TV advertisements as a result there is increased profitability of the producers.Meaning of Basic damage Adolescence Adolescence (lat adolescere,(to) grow) is a transitional stage of physical and mental human ripening that occurs in the midst of childhood and adulthood. This transition involves biologic (i. e. pubertal), social, and psychological changes, though the biological or physiological ones are the easiest to measure objectively. Historically, puberty has been heavily associated wi th teenagers and the trespass of adolescent development. 1234 In recent years, however, the fasten on of puberty has seen an increase in preadolescence and extension beyond the teenage years, making adolescence little simple to discern. 152The end of adolescence and the beginning of adulthood varies by awkward as well as by function, as even within a single country there will be different ages at which an single is considered senesce enough to be entrusted with particular tasks, such as driving a vehicle, having sexual relations, serving in the armed forces, voting, or marrying. Also, adolescence is usually tended to(p) by an increased independence allowed by the parents or legal guardians and less supervision, contrary to the preadolescence stage. PubertyPuberty is the stage of the lifespan in which a child develops secondary sex characteristics (for example a deeper voice or bigger adams apple in boys, and development of breasts and more curved and prominent hips in girls) as his or her hormonal isotropy shifts laboriously towards an adult state. This is triggered by the pituitary gland, which secretes a surge of hormones, such as testosterone (boys) or estrogen and progesterone (girls) into the blood stream and begins the rapid maturation of the gonads the girls ovaries and the boys testicles.Some boys whitethorn develop Gynecomastia due to an imbalance of sex hormones, tissue responsiveness or obesity. Put simply, puberty is the time when a childs proboscis starts changing into an adults corpse. The on format of puberty in girls appears to be related to body fat percentage. Girls start going through puberty earlier than boys, although there switch been cases of boys having signs of puberty as archaean as the age of 9. The clean age for girls to start puberty is 10-12 while the average age for boys to start puberty is 12-14. Adolescent psychological scienceAdolescent psychology is associated with noteworthy changes in supposition sometimes known as mood swings. Cognitive, emotional and attitudinal changes which are characteristic of adolescence, often take place during this period, and this tramp be a cause of conflict on one plenty and positive personality development on the other. Because the adolescents are experiencing various strong cognitive and physical changes, for the first time in their lives they may start to view their friends, their ally group, as more important and influential than their parents/guardians.Because of peer pressure, they may sometimes indulge in activities not nurseed socially acceptable, although this may be more of a social phenomenon than a psychological one. 6 This point of intersection is addressed within the study of psychosociology.The home is an important aspect of adolescent psychology home environment and family have a substantial preserve on the developing minds of teenagers, and these developments may reach a climax during adolescence. For example, inglorious parents ma y lead a child to poke fun at other classmates when he/she is seven years out of date or so, solely during adolescence, it may become progressively orse, for example, the child may now be using drugs or becoming intolerably violent among other classmates. If the concepts and theory behind right or wrong were not established early on in a childs life, the lack of this intimacy may impair a teenagers ability to nurse beneficial decisions as well as allowing his/her impulses to control his/her decisions.In the wait for a unique social identity for themselves, adolescents are frequently confuse about what is right and what is wrong. G. Stanley Hall denoted this period as one of behave and Stress and, according to him, conflict at this developmental stage is average and not unusual. Margaret Mead, on the other hand, attri moreovered the behavior of adolescents to their culture and upbringing. 7 However, Piaget, attributed this stage in development with greatly increased cogn itive abilities at this stage of life the individuals sights start taking more of an abstract form and the egocentric thoughts decrease, hence the individual is able to think and reason in a wider perspective. 8 Positive psychology is sometimes brought up when addressing adolescent psychology as well.This approach towards adolescents refers to providing them with motivation to become socially acceptable and notable individuals, since many adolescents find themselves bored, indecisive and/or unmotivated. 9 Adolescents may be subject matter to peer pressure within their adolescent time span, consisting of the need to have sex, consume alcoholic beverages, use drugs, defy their parental figures, or gift any activity in which the person who is subjected to may not deem appropriate, among other things.Peer pressure is a common lie with between adolescents and may result briefly or on a larger scale. It should also be noted that adolescence is the stage of a psychological discovery i n a persons life when the cognitive development is rapid10 and the thoughts, ideas and concepts developed at this period of life greatly influence the individuals future life, playing a major role in character and personality formation. 11 Struggles with adolescent identity and depression usually set in when an adolescent experiences a loss.The most important loss in their lives is the changing relationship between the adolescent and their parents. Adolescents may also experience strife in their relationships with friends. This may be because of things their friends do, such as smoking, that they emotional state if they dont do, theyll lose their friendship. Teen depression can be extremely intense at times because of physical and hormonal changes but emotional instability is part of being a teenager.Their changing mind, body and relationships often present themselves as stressful and that change, they assume, is something to be feared. 12 Views of family relationships during adole scence are changing. The old view of family relationships during adolescence put an fury on conflict and disengagement and thought storm and stress was normal and even inevitable. However, the new view puts emphasis on transformation or relationships and maintenance of connectedness. Consumer behavior